Urinalysis and lab tests

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Urinalysis data usually taken are divided into two parts; qualitative and quantitative data from urine laboratory tests. As the name implies, qualitative testing is to test the color and transparency of urine, while quantitative testing is to test the content of certain indicators in urine, such as volume, specific gravity, and pathological tissue content. Urine composition (blood, protein, creatinine, etc.).

Qualitative data from urine laboratory tests

urine color

� ½ On the first day of a child’s life, the urine is colorless

� ½ Days 2-4 – Dark red as a large amount of urea is excreted.

� ½ In breastfed babies, urine is nearly colorless until they start drinking juice and other foods at 4-6 months of age

� ½ Urine is straw yellow in formula-fed infants, all children, and adults.

Changes in urine color may be physiological. E.g;

� ½ pass colorless urine when a person drinks large amounts of fluid

� ½ Urine turns orange when food contains a lot of carotene (carrots);

� ½ pink urine after eating red beets;

� ½ Some medicines can affect urine color. Thus, rifampicin causes red urine, metamizole and sulfa drugs pink, and mitraline saffron yellow.

In the case of kidney disease, some urine discolorations are diagnostic:

� ½ dark brown urine is a pathological symptom of hepatitis virus; the cause of this color is hyperbilirubinuria with a large amount of bile pigment); the characteristic sign is the formation of a yellowish foam after shaking this urine.

� ½ smoky brown urine, similar to tea or cola, is formed when nephrons are damaged, when red blood cells cross the basement membrane of the glomerulus and lose hemoglobin.It is the cardinal sign of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

� ½ In cases of trauma, renal tuberculosis, crystallization, cystitis, urethritis, renal tumors, a bright red color can be found when “fresh” red blood cells enter the urine.

� ½ Dark purple discoloration is a sign of massive red blood cell hemolysis in cases of poisoning, Rh conflict, transfusion errors, etc.


A newborn’s urine will only be cloudy for the first 2-3 days after birth. After that, every healthy person will pass clear urine. Cloudy, dark milky urine is seen in urinary tract infections, and there are a lot of crystals, red or white blood cells, pus or fat in the urine.

Urine assay quantitative data

Diuresis refers to the process of producing urine. Urine output (UV per 24 hours) is its laboratory reflection. Its meaning depends on age.

Pathological changes in urine output

� ½ Polyuria is diagnosed when the urine output exceeds the normal range by 2 times or more. It is often a sign of reduction in cardiac edema, diabetes, diabetes insipidus and other systemic diseases. In case of nephritic edema, regressive progression of chronic renal failure, nephritis occurs.

� ½ oliguria means a reduction in daily urine output to 50 or less. Renal oliguria is one of the most important manifestations of renal failure. Oliguria may also have extrarenal causes such as profuse bleeding, diarrhea, poisoning, heart failure, and shock. Determining the cause of oliguria is important because when urine output decreases below 5% of normal figures or when there is no urine throughout the day, treatment options may be very different. This is one of the most life-threatening situations for a child and requires urgent medical help.

� ½ anuria can be

1. Kidneys – Kidneys do not form urine due to considerable tissue damage.

2. Postrenal (mechanical) – Urine is produced but does not enter the bladder due to upper urinary tract or bladder neck obstruction.

� ½ In nocturia, the normal correlation between daytime and nighttime urine output is 2:1. This means that urinary excretion is more intense during the day due to high fluid intake and physical activity. If the amount of nocturia is large, it is a sign of decreased renal function.

Urine pH

This sign varies from person to person and from person to person over time, depending on age, dietary habits, prescribed medications, and medications.


It is the concentration of electrolytes and other substances dissolved in the urine. A decrease in specific gravity can be seen in conditions such as drinking a lot of water, severe renal failure, progressive edema, and diabetes insipidus. Increases were observed in oliguria, diabetes mellitus, massive protein excretion. Excretion of 0.1 g of glucose per 11 urine results in an increase in specific gravity of more than 0.004; 0.4 for protein on 0.001.

Urinalysis deviation from normal values ​​is an indication of metabolic disturbance

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