Nutrition and Food

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“Nutrition is the process of getting nutrients from the food you eat.”

Nutrient type

carbohydrate –

Carbohydrates are energy-providing nutrients and are our main source of energy. They are easily digested and broken down into glucose, which the body uses to perform many of its functions. For every gram of carbohydrates consumed, the body absorbs 4 calories.

Carbohydrates are divided into

Simple carbohydrates (sugars), complex carbohydrates (fiber) and starches.

and categorized according to the glycemic index as low, medium and high

The glycemic index shows how high, low, and how quickly blood sugar levels change after consuming carbohydrates. The higher the glycemic index, the greater the rise in blood sugar and the longer it takes to return to normal. For a healthy diet, it’s best to focus on foods with a low glycemic index, which also depend on physical exertion. Foods with a high glycemic index have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease and diabetes.

Carbohydrate needs in our diet:

Carbohydrates should make up 45% – 65% of calories in the diet, which is about 225g – 325g carbs for someone on a 2000 calorie diet.

Healthy and unhealthy sources of carbohydrates in our food:

The healthiest sources of carbohydrates are unprocessed or minimally processed whole grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes.

Unhealthy carbohydrate sources include white bread, pastries, soda, and other highly processed or refined foods. These items can cause weight gain, interfere with weight loss, and promote the development of diabetes and heart disease.


Fat is an important part of the diet. One of the sources of energy is related to fat-soluble vitamins.

1 gram of fat provides 37 kJ (9 kcal) of energy. Foods that contain a lot of fat provide a lot of energy.

There are different types of fats, including saturated fats and unsaturated fats.

Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature, while unsaturated fats are liquid.

High intake of saturated or trans fatty acids can have adverse health effects.

Foods containing polyunsaturated fats are essential for good health and overall health. It’s found in seafood like tuna, mackerel, and salmon, as well as in nuts, canola oil, and flaxseed oil.

fiber –

The indigestible fiber portion of our diet is critical to digestive health.

Fiber is a type of carbohydrate. While most carbohydrates are broken down into sugar molecules, fiber is not broken down into sugar molecules and passes through the body undigested. Fiber helps regulate the body’s use of sugar, helping to control hunger and blood sugar.

Fiber should make up at least 5% of your daily caloric intake. Children and adults need at least 20 to 30 grams of fiber per day to stay healthy and consume 2,000 calories per day. There are two types of fiber, both of which have health benefits:

• Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, helps lower blood sugar levels and blood cholesterol.

• Insoluble fiber, which doesn’t dissolve in water, helps food move through the digestive system, promotes regularity and helps prevent constipation.

• Minerals – Minerals are small amounts of inorganic substances and essential nutrients needed to maintain good health. Minerals don’t give you energy or calories, but they participate in and help build bones and teeth. People have different requirements, based on their age, sex, physical state (e.g. pregnancy), and sometimes their health. Certain minerals are needed in greater amounts than others, such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Other elements are required in smaller amounts and are sometimes called trace elements, such as iron, zinc, iodine, fluoride, selenium, and copper.

protein – protein Composed of smaller amino acids. Protein in the diet is called a macronutrient and provides energy (calories) to the body. There are 20 amino acids used to build proteins.

Since all cells and tissues contain protein, it is essential for the growth and repair of muscles and other body tissues. Hair and nails are mainly composed of protein. You also use protein to make enzymes, hormones, and other body chemicals. Protein is an important building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin and blood.

There are 4 calories per gram of protein. The Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) for adults is set at 0.75 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day.

Sources of protein include meat (burgers, fish, chicken), dairy (cheese, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese), eggs, tofu, lentils, and soy milk.

vitamin- vitamins They are organic compounds in very small amounts that are essential to support normal physiological function. Vitamins don’t give you calories or energy, but they help keep you healthy.

There are two types of vitamins: water-soluble and fat-soluble.

Water-soluble vitamins include vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, vitamin C, biotin, and folic acid. They are not stored in the body in large quantities, and any excess is lost through urine.

Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins play important roles in many chemical processes in the body. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E and K, which can be stored in your body. Consuming large amounts of fat-soluble vitamins is not recommended as they can cause health problems.

• Water – Water contains zero calories and is not a source of fat, protein or carbohydrates. Although purified water does not contain any additional nutrients. Water is a nutrient in its own right and helps every cell in the body to function properly, serving as a vehicle to carry other nutrients because 60% of the human body is made up of water.

• Water regulates body fluids

• Water aids digestion and keeps you full (so you eat less)

• Water prevents muscle fatigue and dehydration

• Water supports the process by which the kidneys remove toxins from the body

To meet the Institute of Medicine’s water intake recommendations, men should drink about 13 glasses of nonalcoholic fluids per day, while women should drink about 9 glasses.

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